Full Professor

Prof. Eshkol Rafaeli

Full Professor
Gonda Neuroscience Building / Room 204
Reception Hours
Meetings will be scheduled in advance

    Affect and Relationships Lab's website


    Professor, Adult Clinical Program

    Psychology Department and Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center

    Bar-Ilan University

    Ramat Gan, 52900 Israel


    Research Scientist

    Psychology Department

    415-J Milbank Hall

    Barnard College, Columbia University                             

    3009 Broadway, New York, NY 10027



    BA - Hebrew Univ. 1992-95

    MS - Northwestern Univ. 1995-97

    PhD - Northwestern Univ. 1997-01

    Intern/Fellow - McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School - 2000-01

    Posdoc - Social psychology, NYU - 2001-03

    Assistant Prof. - Barnard College, Columbia University 2003-09

    Visiting researcher - BIU - 2006-07

    Associate Prof. - BIU - 2009-2015




    For downloadable versions, please visit my lab website or ResearchGate.


    Rafaeli-Mor, E., Gotlib, I.H., & Revelle, W. (1999). The meaning and measurement of self-complexity. Personality and Individual Differences27, 341-356.

    Rafaeli-Mor, E. & Steinberg, J. (2002). Self-complexity and well-being: A research synthesis. Personality and Social Psychology Review6, 31-58.

    Lutz, W., Rafaeli, E., Howard, K.I., & Martinovich, Z. (2002) Adaptive modeling of progress in outpatient psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research12, 427-443.

    Mineka, S., Rafaeli, E. & Yovel, I. (2002). Cognitive biases in anxiety and depression. In R.J. Davidson, K.R. Scherer, & H.H. Goldsmith, (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford University Press: NY.

    Bolger, N., Davis, A., & Rafaeli, E. (2003) Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology54, 579-616.

    Green, A.S., Rafaeli, E., Bolger, N., Shrout, P.E., & Reis, H.T. (2006). Paper or plastic? Data equivalence in paper and electronic diaries. Psychological Methods11, 87-105.

    Bolger, N., Shrout, P.E., Green, A.S., Rafaeli, E., & Reis, H.T. (2006). Paper and plastic revisited: Let’s keep them both. Psychological Methods11, 123-125.

    Cranford, J.A., Shrout, P.E., Iida, M., Rafaeli, E., Yip, T., & Bolger, N. (2006). A procedure for evaluating sensitivity to within-person change: Can mood measures in diary studies detect change reliably? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 917-929.

    Rafaeli, E. & Revelle, W. (2006). A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion, 30, 1-12.

    Coifman, K.G., Bonanno, G.A., & Rafaeli, E. (2007). Affect dynamics, bereavement and resilience to loss. Journal of Happiness Studies8, 371-392.

    Perunovic, W.Q.E., Heller, D., & Rafaeli, E. (2007). Within-person changes in the structure of emotion: The role of cultural identification and language. Psychological Science18, 607-613.

    Rafaeli, E., Rogers, G.M., & Revelle, W. (2007). Affective synchrony: Individual differences in mixed emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin33, 915-932.

    Brown, G. & Rafaeli, E. (2007). Components of self-complexity as buffers for depressed mood. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 21, 308-331.

    Rafaeli, E., Cranford, J.A., Green, A.S., Shrout, P.E. & Bolger, N. (2008). The Good and Bad of Relationships: How Social Hindrance and Social Support Affect Relationship Moods in Daily Life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1703-1718.

    Rafaeli, E. & Gleason, M.E.J. (2009). Skilled support within intimate relationships. Journal of Family Theory and Review1, 20-37.

    Rafaeli, E. (2009). Daily diary methods. In Harry T. Reis & Susan Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships, pp. 373-376. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Rafaeli, E., & Hiller, A.. (2009). Self-complexity and well-being. In J.W. Reich, A.J. Zautra, & J. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of Adult Resilience. Guildford Press.

    Rafaeli, E. (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapies for personality disorders. Israel Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 290-297.

    Howland, M. & Rafaeli, E. (2010). Bringing everyday mind reading into everyday life: Measuring empathic accuracy with daily diary data. Journal of Personality78, 1437-1468.

    Rafaeli, E. , Bernstein, D., & Young, J. (2010). Distinctive Features of Schema Therapy. London: Routledge.

    Rehman, U., Janssen, E., Hahn, S., Heiman, J., Holzworth-Munroe, A., Fallis, E., & Rafaeli, E. (2011). Marital satisfaction and communication behaviors during sexual and nonsexual conflict discussions in newlywed couples: A pilot study. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 37, 94-103.

    Berenson, K.R., Downey, G., Rafaeli, E., Coifman, K., & Leventhal, N. (2011). The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 681-690.

    Gadassi, R., Mor, N., & Rafaeli, E., (2011). Depression and empathic accuracy within couples: An interpersonal model of gender differences in depression. Psychological Science22, 1033-1041.

    Lykins, A., Janssen, E., Newhouse, S., Heiman, J., & Rafaeli, E. (2012). The effects of similarity in sexual excitation and inhibition and in the effects of mood on sexuality on sexual problems and sexual satisfaction in newlywed couples. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9, 1360-1366.

    Coifman, K.G., Berenson, K., Rafaeli, E., & Downey, G. (2012). From negative to positive and back again: Polarized affective and relational experience in Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology121, 668-679.

    Rafaeli, E. (2012). A case study: Cognitive behavioral treatment of depression incorporating schema focused therapy. Sihot26, 168-170. (In Hebrew).

    Zaki, L.F., Coifman, K.G., Rafaeli, E., Berenson, K.R., & Downey, G. (2013). Emotion differentiation as a protective factor against nonsuicidal self-injury in borderline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy.

    Bar-Kalifa, E., & Rafaeli, E. (2013). Disappointment’s sting is greater than help’s balm: Quasi-signal-detection of daily support matching. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 956-967. doi: 10.1037/a0034905. 

    Gadassi, R., Snir, A., Berenson, K., Downey, G., & Rafaeli, E. (2014).  Out of the frying pan, into the fire: Mixed affective reactions to social proximity in borderline and avoidant personality disorders in daily life. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 613-622.

    Rafaeli, E., Maurer, O., & Thoma, N. (2014). Working with modes in schema therapy. In N. Thoma & D. McKay (Eds.), Working with Emotion in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Techniques for Clinical Practice. NY: Guilford.

    Atzil-Slonim, D., Bar-Kalifa, E., Rubel, J., Schiefele, A-K., Peri, T., Lutz, W., & Rafaeli, E. (2015). Therapeutic bond judgments: Congruence and incongruence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 773-784. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000015.

    Bar-Kalifa, E., Hen-Weissberg, A., & Rafaeli, E. (2015). Perceived Partner Responsiveness Mediates the Association between Social Anxiety and Relationship Satisfaction in Committed Couples. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34, 587-610.

    Bar-Kalifa, E., & Rafaeli, E. (2015). Above and below baselines The nonmonotonic effects of dyadic emotional support in daily life. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32, 161-179. 

    Gadassi, R., & Rafaeli, E. (2015). Interpersonal perception as a mediator of the depression–interpersonal difficulties link: A review. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 1-7.

    Kordahji, H., Bar-Kalifa, E., & Rafaeli, E.  (2015). Attachment Insecurity as a Moderator of Cardiovascular Arousal Effects following Dyadic Support. Journal of Research in Personality, 57, 89-99.

    Snir, A., Rafaeli, E., Gadassi R., Berenson, K., & Downey, G. (2015). Explicit and Inferred Motives for Non-suicidal Self Injurious Acts and Urges in Borderline and Avoidant Personality Disorders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advanced online publication, doi: 10.1037/per0000104

    Bar-Kalifa, E., Atzil-Slonim, D., Rafaeli, E., Peri, T., Rubel, J., & Lutz, W. (2016). Therapist-Client Agreement in Assessments of Clients' Functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84, 1127

    Bar-Kalifa, E., Bar-Kalifa, L., Rafaeli, E., George-Levi, S., & Vilchinsky, N. (2016). Relational Entitlement Moderates the Associations between Support Matching and Perceived Partner Responsiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 65, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.08.009

    Bar-Kalifa, E., Rafaeli, E., &  Sened, H. (2016). Truth and bias in daily judgments of support receipt between romantic partners. Personal Relationships.

    Berenson, K.R., Dochat, C., Martin, C.G., Yang, X., Rafaeli, E., & Downey, G. (2016). Identification of mental states and interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders –Theory, Research, and Treatment.

    Berenson, K.R., Gregory, W.E., Glaser, E., Romirowsky, A., Rafaeli, E., Yang, X., & Downey, G. (2016). Impulsivity, rejection sensitivity, and reactions to stressors in borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40, 510-521. doi: 10.1007/s10608-015-9752-y

    Chen, R., Atzil-Slonim, D., Bar-Kalifa, E., Hasson-Ohayon, I., & Rafaeli, E. (2016). Therapists' Recognition of Alliance Ruptures as a Moderator of Change in Alliance and Symptoms. Psychotherapy Research.

    Fisher, H., Atzil-Slonim, D., Bar-Kalifa, E., Rafaeli, E., & Peri, T. (2016). Emotional Experience and Alliance as Common Factors That Synergistically Contribute to Therapeutic Change. Psychotherapy, Vol 53(1), Mar 2016, 105-116.  doi:10.1037/pst0000041 

    Gadassi, R., Eadan Bar-Nahum, L., Newhouse, S., Anderson, R., Heiman, J.R., Rafaeli, E., & Janssen, E. (2016). Perceived partner responsiveness mediates the association between sexual and marital satisfaction: A daily diary study in newlywed couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 109-120.  doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0448-2

    Husen, K., Rafaeli, E., Rubel, J. A. , Bar-Kalifa, E. , Lutz, W.  (2016). Daily Affect Dynamics predict Early Response in CBT: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 206, 305-314.

    Prinz, J., Bar-Kalifa, E., Rafaeli, E., & Lutz, W. (2016). Imagery Rescripting und psychophysiologische Zusammenhänge anhand eines ImRs-Behandlungskonzepts für Prüfungsangst: Überblick und erste Erfahrungen / Imagery Rescripting and psychophysical relations based on the ImRs-therapy concept used for test anxiety: Review and first experience. Psychotherapie - Psychosomatik - Medizinische Psychologie, 66, 481-485.

    Rafaeli, E., Maurer, O., Lazarus, G., & Thoma, N.C. (2016). The self in schema therapy. In M. Kyrios, M., R. Moulding, M. Nedeljkovic, S.S. Bhar, G. Doron, G. M. Mikulincer (Eds.), The Self in Understanding and Treating Psychological Disorders. Cambridge University Press.

    Snir, A., Bar-Kalifa, E., Berenson, K., Downey, G., & Rafaeli, E. (2016). Affective instability as a clinical feature of avoidant personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.

    Sened, H., Yovel, I., Bar-Kalifa, E.,  Gadassi, R. & Rafaeli, E. (2017). Now You Have My Attention: Empathic Accuracy Pathways in Couples and the Role of Conflict. Emotion, 17, 155-168..

    Sened, H., Lavidor, M., Lazarus, G., Bar-Kalifa, E., Rafaeli, E., & Ickes, W. (In press). Empathic Accuracy and Relationship Satisfaction: A Meta-analytic Review. Journal of Family Psychology.

    Lazarus, G., Bar-Kalifa, E., & Rafaeli, E. (In press). Accurate where it counts: Empathic accuracy on conflict and no-conflict days. Emotion.

    George-Levi, S., Vilchinsky, N., Rafaeli, E., Liberman, G., Khaskiaa, A., Mosseri, M., & Hanoch, H. (2017). Caregiving Styles and Anxiety among Couples: The Context of Coping, versus Not Coping, with Cardiac Illness. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 30, 107-120.

    Rafaeli, E. (In press). Schema Therapy. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T.K. Shackelford, Eds., Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. NY: Springer.

    Rafaeli, E., Gadassi, R., Howland, M., Boussi, A., & Lazarus, G. (In press). Seeing (bad) clearly: Accuracy regarding negative moods predicts positive relationship outcomes. Motivation &  Emotion.

    Peled, O., Bar-Kalifa, E., & Rafaeli, E. (In Press). Stability or instability in avoidant personality disorder: mode fluctuations within schema therapy sessions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry.

    Snir, A., Apter, A., Barzilay, S., Feldman, D., Rafaeli, E., Carli, V., Wasserman, C., Hadlaczky, G., Hoven, C.W., Sarchiapone, M., & Wasserman, D., (In press). Explicit Motives, Antecedents and Consequences of Direct Self Injurious Behaviors –A Longitudinal Study in a Community Sample of Adolescents. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention.

    Bar-Kalifa, E., Pshedetzky-Shochat, R., Rafaeli, E., & Gleason, M.E.J. (In press). Daily Support Equity in Romantic Couples: Response Surface Analyses of Monadic and Dyadic Data. Social Psychology and Personality Science.

    Atzil-Slonim, D., Bar-Kalifa, E., Fisher, H., Peri, T., Lutz, W., Rubel, J., & Rafaeli, E. (In press). Emotional Congruence between Clients and Therapists and Its Effect on Treatment Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology.

    Research Interests

    Supervises both MA and PhD students - Currently recruiting only new MA students.


    Broad topics:

    Daily processes in intimate relationships

    Personality disorders

    Schema therapy



    Specific examples:

    • Affective structure and affective chronometry (e.g., synchrony of positive and negative affect, parameters of circadian mood rhythms in psychiatric disorders)
    • Application of social psychological and personality research to basic psychopathology questions and to the understanding of individuals' and couples’ clinical concerns
    • Social cognition in psychopathology (particularly mood, anxiety, and personality disorders) and in personality; including self-complexity, evaluative integration, and mental models of affect
    • Use of diary methods and multi-level modeling in studying psychotherapy, mood, coping, stress, and support




    Principal Investigator. John Templeton Foundation grant: Dyadic hope in the transition to parenthood: parenthood. ($217,360)


    Principal Investigator. National Institute of Insurance (Israeli Social Security Administration): "One will lift up the other" – Couples' coping with unemployment and job seeking (139,832 NIS).


    Principal Investigator. Hope and Optimism Project, Templeton Foundation grant: His, hers, or theirs: Hope as a shared dyadic resource in the transition to parenthood. ($170,000).


    Principal Investigator. Israel Science Foundation grant: Social anxiety disorder and impaired responsiveness mechanisms: A dyadic multi-method study. (900,000 NIS). ISF # 1422/14.


    Co-Principal Investigator Binational Science Foundation grant: Skillful dyadic support processes during the transition to parenthood. ($184,800). BSF # 2013324. (Co-PI: Dr. Marci Gleason, UT-Austin).


    Sub-contractor. DFG – German Research Foundation grant: Bonn Study on Predictors of Marital Satisfaction. ($7050). (PI: Prof. R. Banse)


    Principal Investigator. Israel Science Foundation grant: A multi-method study of the role of empathic accuracies in predicting skilled support. (592,000 NIS). ISF # 615/10.


    Principal Investigator. Israel Science Foundation new faculty equipment grant: Affect and Relationships Laboratory ($240,000, including the matching funds from Bar Ilan University). ISF # 1696/10.

    2007 – 11

    Co-principal Investigator. NIMH R01 (MH081948) grant: Rejection Sensitivity and Self-Regulation in Personality Disorders. (With G. Downey and K. Berenson. $1,000,000).

    2006 – 09

    Partner Investigator. Australian Research Council Grant

    (PIs: Jennifer Boldero and Richard Bell; $250,000)

    2006 – 07

    Co-Investigator. Indiana University – Faculty Research Support Program: “Digital Daily Diaries in Sexual Health Research”.

    (PI: Julia Heiman; Co-investigators: E. Janssen, S. Sanders, D. Fortenberry, A. Holtzworth-Munroe, J. & Mostafa, B. Katz; $96,846)

    2005 – 06

    Young Investigator Award – Competitive Renewal. Borderline Personality Disorders Research Foundation ($35,000)

    2005 – 09

    Design and Statistical Consultant. NIMH-funded R01 grant “Personality, Motivation, and Memory”

    (PI: Barbara Woike; $500,000)

    2003 – 05

    Young Investigator Award. Borderline Personality Disorders Research Foundation ($149,924)


    Dissertation Year Grant Northwestern University ($1,500)

    Last Updated Date : 14/12/2022